1. Major Sponsors
  2. Important Information
    1. How to Cite this Site
    2. Images and Information this Site
  3. Acknowledgements Version 2
  4. Acknowledgements Version 1
  5. Comments and Feedback
  6. About this Site
  7. Site History

Version 2
© Mark Brundrett 2008




A. Sponsors

Web Hosting
This site is generously supported by: Digital Pacific
Version 1 Version 2
Lotterywest logo UWA logo

Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) in partnership with CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products

Lotterywest sponsors the Wheatbelt Orchid Rescue Project

School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia

B. Important Information

Active Content
You need to activate interactive content to gain full use of the site (many images have rollovers active when the mouse hovers over an image). This site uses css and xhtml and is not fully compliant with some older browsers (all content will be visible, but menus will not be fixed in place).
There is a separate stylesheet for printing that simplifies use of colours.
Version 2
All sections of this site have been considerably upgraded and new sections added to account for new knowledge and definitions of mycorrhizal association types. Primary sources of information include recent reviews on mycorrhizal evolution and the definition of mycorrhizal associations (Brundrett 2002, 2004, 2006).

1. How to Cite this Website:

As a general reference
Use this reference form when not citing specific information, such as the identity of plant families with types of mycorrhizas, that could change in future revisions of this site.

Brundrett MC. 2008. Mycorrhizal Associations: The Web Resource. Date accessed. ‹›.

Referencing specific Data
Citations of more specific information (data on mycorrhizal plants) should refer to the page name and site version no, as shown below (the date is fixed). This is necessary because the information and statistics on pages will be updated as new information becomes available. Note that while the overall importance of mycorrhizal associations is unlikely to change much, our knowledge of roots in some plant families is not fully resolved.

Brundrett MC. 2008. Ectomycorrhizas. In: Mycorrhizal Associations: The Web Resource. Version 2.0. Date accessed. ‹›.

2. Images and information on this Website:

This information is copyrighted by Mark Brundrett. Sources of information are acknowledged in each section. The use of information and images from this site for non-profit teaching purposes is encouraged, but they may not be published in any form without written permission.

The author of this website is not responsible for any outcomes resulting from use of the information provided. It is your responsibility to read and follow safety information provided by suppliers of chemicals.

Images cannot be published without permission from the photographer who is the copyright owner. Most images are by Mark Brundrett, unless another photographer is acknowledged. The original source of images must always be acknowledged.

Use of images from the site in commercial works normally requires a modest fee to help offset costs of maintaining this site (e.g. $100). This will also make you feel good, as you will be helping to support research on critically endangered plant species in Western Australia. In some cases you will need to contact a photographer other than Mark Brundrett. You can also purchase single use rights to digital images for artistic purposes (most are high resolution slide scans).

Several sections of this site are originally based on text and images from the book Working with Mycorrhizas in Forestry and Agriculture by Mark Brundrett, Neale Bougher, Bernie Dell, Tim Grove and Nick Malajczuk, published by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research in 1996. Diagrams from this book are available for you to download.


C. Acknowledgments Version 2 - 2008

I would especially like to thank my wife Karen Clarke for her endless patience while this site was compiled.

It would not have been possible to produce these web pages without the support provided by funding agencies for research programs which resulted in the information presented here. My current research on orchid conservation is supported by Lotterywest and the School of Plant Biology at The University of Western Australia.

I especially wish to acknowledge Mike Shane generously provided images of specialised roots of Australian plants. Many of the plants photographed are in the living collection of the University of Western Australia. Plant material, supplies and equipment for microscopy were provided by Hai Ngo, Li Hua, Gary Cass, Steven Mole.

The following people provided comments on sections of this website: Neale Bougher, Hans Lambers, Chris Walker, Michael Moody.


D. Acknowledgments Version 1 - 1999

I would particularly like to thank the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) for funding the CSIRO mycorrhizal research program managed initially by Dr Nick Malajczuk. Many diagrams used in these pages are from a mycorrhizal methods book published by ACIAR.

I am especially grateful to Peter Lynch for support throughout the various stages of its production. I would especially like to acknowledge the support of other authors of the mycorrhizal manual; Neale Bougher, Nick Malajczuk, Bernie Dell and Tim Grove. Graham Chilvers, Joe Morton, Chris Walker, Sato Juniper and Karen Clarke provided comments on the book.

Expertise on ectomycorrhizal fungi was gained during research programs supported by ACIAR and CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products at the CSIRO Centre for Mediterranean Agricultural Research. Knowledge about mycorrhizas and root anatomy was obtained during research activities at the Universities of Guelph and Waterloo in Canada and the University of Western Australia. Mark Brundrett would like to thank his colleagues during those years especially Drs. Larry Peterson, Bryce Kendrick, Carol Peterson, George Barron, Lyn Abbott, David Jasper, Sato Juniper and N. Ashwath. This work was primarily supported by the Botany Department of the University of Guelph, the Biology Department of the University of Waterloo, the Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Group of the Faculty of Agriculture at The University of Western Australia, the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist of the Environmental Protection Agency, Australia and The Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

E. Comments and Feedback

Please E-mail any comments, or suggestions about this site to Mark Brundrett. You are particularly invited to provide additional information for the lists of mycorrhizal plants provided here if you have additional relevant information.


F. About this Site

What you will find here:

What you will not find here:

Where to go for more information:


G. Site History

Version 1
Published in 1999, Online at CSIRO until Nov 2008. Pure html.
Version 2.0
Published in 2008. Three new sections and major upgrades to all sections with many new topics and images. Information about mycorrhizal plant families in tables. Site upgraded for xhtml and css compliance. Dynamic content introduced.

© Mark Brundrett January 2008